Maritime Training Blog
cybersecurity cyberterrorism ISPS Liquified Natural Gas LNG training maritime fuels maritime research maritime risks maritime safety maritime training port development presentations safety training terrorism training USCG
The Maritime Administration recently released a new study on LNG bunkering that points out the need for regulatory policies and safety standards.
As we have previously stated the increasing popularity of liquefied natural gas use is providing a unique opportunity for maritime training institutes worldwide including MSI.
The study points out that because the use of LNG as a maritime propulsion fuel is a relatively new concept in the U.S., there are significant safety and regulatory gaps as well as challenges related to the development of a national infrastructure for LNG bunkering.
The report states: “Infrastructure development as well as vessel transition to LNG propulsion will be driven by tighter environmental regulations and price differences between conventional fuels and natural gas. Because the development of infrastructure is acutely dependent on the needs of specific ports and stakeholders, there is no single bunkering option.”
Margaret Doyle, vice president of development and LNG solutions at the Maritime Simulation Institute, reviewed the recommendations and agrees that the key to successful implementation of LNG as a marine fuel is developing best practices and infrastructure.
MSI has developed an LNG training course and is already taking the lead on LNG training. We are capable of implementing many of the recommendations that have come out of the report including the following:
- Analyze the types of vessels that utilize ports in the U.S. to determine what bunkering methods will be necessary.
- Identifying ports where LNG bunkering infrastructure would be in the national best interest.
- Develop a methodology for and conduct a quantitative port-wide navigational risk assessment to determine how changes in the type of vessels and frequency/density affect the safety and security of the public, workers, critical infrastructure, and commercial operations.
- Conduct a port risk assessment to identify and quantify alternative strategies to overcome technical barriers and mitigate risk to an acceptable level (as per EN1473 or NFPA 59A).
- Incentivize first movers that establish LNG bunkering infrastructure in ports of the nation’s best interest through an Environmental Ship Index that defines a scale for financial rewards.
- Identify strategic port locations along the U.S. coasts to avoid populated, tourism, military, and protected areas.
- Encourage initial developments that promote flexibility on the LNG supplier for bunkering to different types of vessels.
- Develop an interagency working group to identify and develop management strategies and mitigation opportunities for potential.
- Perform a comparative risk assessment study of the safety aspects for large-scale truck transport to port locations vs. large-scale rail transport to port locations vs. natural gas pipeline and local liquefaction.
- Conduct an optimization study that assesses the optimal infrastructure build-out to provide LNG bunkering for both high-frequency, low volume transfers and low frequency, high volume transfers more efficiently.
- Evaluate LNG bunkering site availability as demand increases for more high frequency, low volume transfers.
- Involve stakeholders throughout the development of LNG bunkering and co-locating LNG bunkering with multimodal uses.
- Assess the effectiveness of mitigation strategies (such as training, gas detection, firefighting capability, and emergency response) against potential incidents arising from co-locating bunkering activities with other uses of LNG.
- Perform a detailed study of potential routes for LNG transportation (truck, rail, and pipeline) that avoid densely populated areas and identify emergency response capabilities along the route.
All of MSI’s LNG course development is in accordance with the draft amendments to Chapter V of STCW Convention scheduled to be approved by IMO in November 2014.
Margaret Kaigh Doyle, our VP of Development, presented on LNG at the 2014 All About Marine Conference on September 4, 2014. For a copy of her slide presentation, please click here or the image below.
The United States Maritime Resource Center recently conducted its second successful LNG Bunkering Persons-in Charge course at its headquarters in Newport County, R.I., also home to the Maritime Simulation Institute.
The five-day course prepares marine and shore-based personnel to serve as persons in charge of LNG bunkering operations for gas-fueled vessels.
One of the reasons our courses have become so popular and successful is because of the growing demand for liquefied natural gas. Given its myriad applications, the focus has shifted quickly to how the industry can accommodate that demand.
The global engineering group Trelleborg published a white paper earlier this year on how infrastructure is evolving to meet the growing demand. The report points out that floating LNG projects are increasingly being considered as the best place for storage and re-gasification. With that comes the need for better and safer docking, mooring, fendering and transfer of the fuel.
The white paper notes that under-deck reinforcement requirements must be simplified as much as possible, while Quick Release Hooks for ship-to-ship mooring will have to comply with designated vessel Class Rules and certification requirements.
The paper also points out that alternative solutions to fixed lasers, used to measure and record berthing speed and the angle of approach, will be required to allow the flexibility needed for open sea berthing and allow for pitch and roll.
When it comes to fenders, “off-the-shelf solutions” are not an option in the LNG arena, writes Scott Smith, regional director, Asia Pacific for Trelleborg.
“This introduction of small-scale LNG facilities at existing terminals will, at the very least, require a full review of the fender systems utilized,” notes Smith, in the white paper.
Compatibility is a key issue for the safe transport of LNG, writes David Pendleton, business development director, oil and gas transfer technology for Trelleborg.
“Small scale LNG transfer and the use of LNG as a marine fuel on the face of it look identical to the large scale industry,” Pendleton writes in the report. “However, this is a much more cost sensitive market and there is a need to strike a balance between the implementation of the compatible systems and safe practices of the large scale industry and the need to make this new market economically viable.
Having the right equipment and the right training is vital to the safe transportation and off-loading of LNG. Subject matter experts with extensive hands-on LNG experience teach our courses, which are being offered ahead of any United States Coast Guard regulations governing LNG bunkering. The course was developed in accordance with the draft amendments to Chapter V of the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) that have been approved by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The course also aligns with recent policy guidance on LNG bunkering issued by the USCG.
One unique feature of the course is a full day of practical, hands-on field exercises addressing various LNG bunkering safety and emergency response scenarios. Participants are outfitted in full firefighting gear and experience LNG emergency situations first hand using actual LNG.
Another highlight of the course is that students will take part in LNG bunkering operations exercises using high-fidelity simulators and will be assessed for competence as a person in charge of LNG bunkering operations.
Click here for a complete overview of our LNG bunkering course.
There have been several recent news reports about the increasing interest in the use of Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) as a source of energy. This increased demand for the fuel will require additional training for its safe storage and transportation.
Oskar Levander, vice president for innovation, engineering and technology at Rolls-Royce Marine, told Marinelink: “I have long held the view that LNG will be the fuel of the future for a growing number of ships. There is no doubt that gas will be available much longer than mineral-based fuels.”
Meantime, Liquefied Natural Gas Limited recently advised that the U.S. Department of Energy has revised procedures that could result in faster approval of applications to export LNG to non-Free Trade Agreement countries.
The company is working to bring mid-scale liquefied natural gas projects to the international energy market through its subsidiary Magnolia LNG.
And, the U.S. Energy Information Administration reports that Hawaii and several U.S. island territories have begun to view imported LNG as a viable option to expand their fuel diversity. Unlike the rest of the U.S., energy consumption in island states and territories is almost entirely petroleum-based. Utilities in Hawaii and industry in Puerto Rico also are now testing the economics of small-scale LNG imports.
LNG’s increasing popularity provides a unique opportunity for maritime training institutes worldwide. USMRC has more than three decades of experience focusing on the LNG sector. We are one of the pioneers in marine operations research and training using real time, man-in-the-loop, full mission ship and tug simulations involving LNG tankers and facilities.
In July USMRC announced that its inaugural LNG Bunkering Person in Charge course was a huge success and our August course also saw more than a dozen participants. The September course is filling up quickly and we anticipate that October will be full as well.
Each year U.S. ports handle more than $1.3 trillion in cargo. These ports rely on information and communication systems, which, in today’s highly technical world, have become susceptible to cyberterrorism.
A recent Government Accountability Office (GAO) report suggests that maritime security policies and plans at three high-risk U.S. ports fail to properly address how to assess, manage and respond to cybersecurity threats.
GAO looked at relevant laws and regulations, analyzed federal cybersecurity-related policies and plans, observed operations at three U.S. ports, which were selected because they are considered high-risk, and interviewed federal and non-federal officials. The audits were conducted between April 2013 and June 2014.
Among the GAO’s findings:
- While the U.S. Coast Guard initiated a number of activities and coordinating strategies to improve the physical security in specific ports, it has not conducted a risk assessment to fully address cyber-related threats, vulnerabilities and consequences. Coast Guard officials have said they plan to conduct assessments in the future, but did not provide further details.
- Maritime security plans required by law and regulation generally did not identify or address potential cyber-related threats and vulnerabilities.
- The degree to which information-sharing mechanisms (i.e. councils) were active and shared cybersecurity-related information varied. Until the Coast Guard improves these mechanisms, maritime stakeholders in different locations are at greater risk of not being aware of, and thus not mitigating cyber-based threats.
- FEMA identified enhancing cybersecurity capabilities as a funding priority for the first time in 2013 and has provided guidance for cybersecurity proposals. However, the agency has not consulted cybersecurity-related subject matter experts to inform the multi-level review of cyber-related proposals. In addition, because the Coast Guard has not assessed cyber-related risks in the maritime risk assessment, grant applications and FEMA have not been able to use this information to inform funding proposals and decisions. As a result, FEMA is limited in its ability to ensure that the program is effectively addressing cyber-related risks in the maritime environment.
The GAO noted that as computer technology has advanced, “the country’s critical infrastructures including power distribution, water supply, telecommunications and emergency services have come to increasingly rely on computerized information systems and electronic data to carry out operations. The security of these systems and data is essential to protecting national security, economic prosperity and public health and safety.”
In its 54-page report, the GAO recommends that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) direct the Coast Guard to assess cyber-related risks, use this assessment to inform maritime security guidance and determine whether the sector coordinating council should be re-established.
The report also recommends that DHS direct FEMA to develop procedures to consult DHS cybersecurity experts for assistance in reviewing grant proposals and use the result of the cyber-risk assessment to inform its grant guidance.
The U.S. has approximately 360 commercial sea and river ports, and while no two are alike, they share characteristics including size, proximity to metropolitan areas, the amount of cargo being processed and connections to transportation networks. It is essential that our ports not only be made safe from physical security threats, but also those related to cyberterrorism.
While the United States Maritime Resource Center (USMRC) has focused on traditional areas of maritime risk such as environmental protection, crew competency and training, cargo handling safety and navigation safety, we will continue to expand our competencies into the future to address additional needs as demands change.
The recent downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 over the Ukraine by pro-Russian separatist rebels, along with the unexplained disappearance of another Malaysian Airline flight earlier this year, should serve as reminders to everyone in the transportation industry that we must remain vigilant and prepared.
For the maritime industry, the defining moment came in the wake of the 9/11 attacks against the United States. Within a year of those attacks, the International Maritime Organization created the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code), a comprehensive set of measures designed to enhance the security of ships and port facilities. In 2002, Congress also passed the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA), which is aligned with the ISPS code and SOLAS, and enforced by the Department of Homeland Security. Both ISPS and MTSA mandate basic security procedures for ships, ports, and facilities. These include security programs, designated security officers, security plans, and risk assessments. Both the ISPS and MTSA also stress the need to maintain constant security awareness and to provide for layered security.
ISPS established three levels of security:
Level 1: The level at which the ship or port facility normally operates. Minimum appropriate protective security measures shall be maintained at all times.
Level 2: The level applying for as long as there is a heightened risk of a security incident. Appropriate additional protective security measures shall be maintained for a period of time as a result of heightened risk of a security incident.
Level 3: The level applying for the period of time when there is the probable or imminent risk of a security incident. Further specific protective security measures shall be maintained for a limited period of time when a security incident is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify the specific target.
An estimated 90 percent of the world’s cargo is moved on the water. These same ports also have the potential to become channels for illicit trade, smuggling of weapons and chemicals, not to mention the potential for an outside terrorist attack. That’s why it’s imperative that mariners, company representatives, and port personnel continuously assess, manage and respond appropriately to such risks in an effort to protect lives, property, and the environment. Security matters to everyone!.
There are several steps that must be taken to that end:
- Remain current on regions of high risk and threats to shipping, ports, and maritime terminals
- Collect as much information as possible and conduct frequent and thorough risk assessments
- Maintain a current emergency communication plan to include all emergency contact information – review it frequently!
- Appoint a security officer for your ship, port, and facility.
- Create and exercise plans for crew and personnel safety
- Test and ensure all emergency equipment is adequate and properly maintained
- Conduct emergency drills often! Be creative and think like an adversary!
It’s been reported that the global port security market is estimated to grow from $22.28 billion in 2013 to $36.99 billion by 2018. USMRC is part of that market and as such is dedicated to helping ensure that the maritime industry is trained and prepared to handle emergencies.
No matter how long we have been in the maritime industry, things are always changing. Whether it’s new technology, advanced procedures, or updated regulations, staying on your toes is key. Training allows individuals and companies to stay on top of their game, which makes the maritime industry safer and more efficient for all of us. Here are five reasons why you should consider maritime training.
Keep up with new technology
It can be hard to keep up with emerging technology like LNG bunkering, improved navigational systems, and more. Maritime training is designed to allow you to practice and build skills in new areas while mitigating the risks. With shipping comes great responsibility, as you may oversee the transfer of potentially dangerous materials. Make sure you and your crew not only know how to handle it, but to do so with confidence.
Helps crew members think on their feet
One of the issues that crops up frequently in maritime incidents is complacency. When you’ve been doing something for a long time, it can become routine. Even the most experienced crew member may become flustered in an emergency that they haven’t had to deal with before. Training helps your crew think on their feet through real-time drills in a safe environment.
Training can bring to your attention gaps in skill and knowledge. Risk assessment is a big part of training, as it allows us to help you identify where there is room for improvement. You can focus on those weak spots and strengthen them through practice. There may be risks that you are unaware of, simply because they have yet to become an issue. Training can help prevent any problems before they occur, whether it is due to human error or technology.
There’s a reason we don’t do this kind of training online—you need experienced instructors who are at the top of their field both in teaching methodologies and industry expertise. The people who train you are leading researchers, skilled in maritime security, ports and waterways, and emerging technology. These are men and women with real-time experience in a variety of situations and conditions who are there with you every step of the way in your training.
Personalized to your needs (specific ports, technology, etc)
Not every crew has the same training needs, or even similar ones. That’s why personalized training is critical. You can tailor your training depending on the type of ship, navigational technology, cargo, likely security risks, and specific port. Simulation technology allows us to provide accurate representations of many ports around the world, and if we don’t have one in our database, we can usually create it. The more specific your training program, the more you can get out of it.
Maritime training is multi-faceted and flexible. It lets you improve your skills by working with experts and specializing a program that is just right for you. Training should be an ongoing consideration for anyone in the field, because it lets you keep up with any changes as well as keep your abilities sharp. Check out our training opportunities, including LNG training, by clicking here.
A recent study known as Research on the Passing Effects on Ships (ROPES) has revealed new data about just how safe our shipping ports are. The findings have raised serious questions about safety, both to people and the environment. The three-year study involved computer simulation, scale-model testing, and full testing in the Netherlands’ Port of Rotterdam. It began in late 2010 and completed in late 2013; the findings have recently become available.
The researchers found that in restricted waters, such as those found in ports, can create a large force on moored vessels, mooring lines, and fender loads. This, in turn, can make for dangerous conditions in the water. A number of factors contribute to the force of the wash, including the size of the vessel, the shape of the port basin, and the speed at which a vessel passes through.
As time passes and technological advances are implemented, our ships have continued to grow larger in size, speed, and overall power. That means that the wash they give off is much bigger than ever before. When a ship passes through restricted waters, it produces suction and draw down that affects everything around it. As a result, moored ships can come loose, which has dangerous implications on loading and unloading vessels.
Following the results of the research, new software has been developed to identify and implement the safest conditions at port. Further to the software, improved guidelines have been established that may improve the planning and design of new ports. In theory, this will allow the ports of the future to work with our existing vessels and grow with them as technology advances. That would make future ports safer, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than ever before.
What does this mean for you?
The face of the shipping industry is continually changing. The more we learn, the more we can understand about how to make the industry work best for everyone involved. A big part of successful maritime operations is collaboration. We must work together towards a common goal, to use the research findings to improve things for everyone.
This will often mean an increased need for maritime training and risk assessment, to ensure that you are prepared to meet adjusted regulations. What’s more, it’s important to understand why things are changing; i.e., why a new technology or software might be useful to you. In many cases, these improvements can save you time and money as well as creating a safer situation for your vessel.
Ports of the future and their terminals may look different than those we know today, but they should be better, too. It’s our job to stay up to date with information, regulations, and best-practice methodologies, both in terms of our own operations and of those around us. This can help keep the vital shipping industry sustainable in the years to come, and we can all grow with it and adapt to get the best results.
Liquified Natural Gas, or LNG, is taking shipping by storm. At the moment there are about 400 specialized tankers that serve the LNG industry, but that number is set to explode in the next several years. Floating LNG (FLNG) installations are also being developed at a rapid pace to allow for offshore processing of LNG. This new technology’s current and potential impact on the shipping industry is significant.
What is LNG?
Liquified Natural Gas is methane that has been cooled to the point where it becomes a liquid. In its liquid form, the natural gas occupies much less space than it does in its gaseous form, making it easier to export in LNG carriers. This makes gas accessible to many more areas that are not within a reasonable proximity to gas fields. When the LNG is transported, it is then converted back to its original form and piped to consumers.
LNG and Shipping
While LNG has long been technically viable, it presents some economic challenges. LNG carriers are highly specialized and very expensive to build and operate, making them less appealing in a financial respect. However, as the demand for LNG grows, the high price of these carriers is mitigated by the economic rewards of transporting LNG. Technology is also improving, making the required components of an LNG carrier less costly and more efficient.
The first large-scale LNG plant opened in Algeria in 1964, which utilized two ships that were also the first of their kind. The development of LNG technology stalled in the 1970s, but has recently been back on the rise with record highs in 2011. Despite the expense associated with processing and transporting LNG, it is still seen as a clean energy, which is very appealing in terms of sustainable development.
The future of LNG
Asia and Australia are poised to be two of the worlds’ big players in LNG production, with Asia said to be an ideal recipient for importing and Australia working towards exports. The USA is typically known to import LNG, though it remains to be seen how it will use LNG in future.
As LNG grows, shipping is set to grow as a result. Floating processing units are likely to appear in more places, which will require trained employees and high-quality equipment. Employee contracts may also reduce in length, as short-term LNG projects are proving to be available. This suggests that highly skilled maritime professionals may be in demand for a number of different projects, rather than being associated with one long-term project.
As LNG technology becomes more popular, the demand for specialized training will also increase. In July we are launching our first LNG Bunkering PIC course, with five more dates through the end of 2014. Safety is a serious issue with this highly volatile cargo, and safe operation for bunkering LNG when carried as a fuel is very important. With new technology comes new safety precautions and procedures, and seafarers working on LNG ships need to be trained and practiced in these methodologies.
Accidents at sea happen more than we would like, but sometimes they are unavoidable. When that happens, it’s important to assess the risks, develop a safe solution, and carry it out as smoothly as you can. Two recent incidents out of New York illustrate how a potential crisis can be averted with proper training and experience.
In May, the Federal Kivalina, a freighter flagged from Hong Kong, lost its steering in New York state’s St. Lawrence Seaway. The 656-foot bulk carrier was carrying 23,000 metric tons of canola seeds when it began drifting in the busy waterway. The crew dropped three anchors, which caused it to drag to a stop just before it reached the Thousand Island Bridge.
Fortunately, there were no injuries in this incident, nor was any pollution reported. The US Coast Guard was summoned to help and two tugboats from Montreal were sent as well. It was found that the freighter lost power and the USCG designed a salvage plan. Until the area was deemed to be safe, the seaway was closed to vessel traffic for more than two days. The 22 crewmembers remained onboard.
On this particular occasion, the ship was salvaged and refloated according to the safe removal plan developed based on the weather and water conditions. The canola seeds were offloaded to allow for improved floatation, and divers reportedly discovered a two-foot hole in the hull of the ship. The cause is being investigated.
According to all reports, the crew and their rescuers worked together and were able to remedy the situation as efficiently as possible. This is a great example of a potentially dangerous situation being turned around as safely as possible. Without preparation and teamwork, this could have been a tragic story involving injuries. As it stands, it was a reminder to us all to be prepared for the worst as best as we can.
This wasn’t the only recent mishap in New York, with a ferry running aground near Jamaica Bay around the same time. Ocean State was a 55-foot ferry carrying 25 passengers and four crew members when it was grounded due to mud in low water. The trip was a special cruise and the mud was not identifiable on the nautical charts.
In this case, the captain directed the passengers to the front of the ferry, the Coast Guard was called, and an FDNY vessel brought the passengers to shore. Again, no one was injured and the passengers praised the actions of those on board. The incident is being investigated, though it appears to be an accident. It’s impossible to predict if and when you might run into an accident at sea; just like accidents on land, they are often unexpected and sudden. Whether it’s a large cargo-carrying freighter or a small passenger ferry, keeping a calm head and following procedure is important.
Make sure that your crew knows what to do in the event of an emergency, and stay current with your training and risk assessment practices. We never know when we might be called upon to manage a crisis, and when the time comes it’s best to be as prepared as possible.